Foote, Cone and Belding Model which is also termed as FCB Grid, was formulated in the year 1980 by Richard Vaughn.
The Foote, Cone and Belding Model was designed in a grid format based on ‘Think and Feel’ as the base factors. On the basis of these two factors, the involvement levels of consumers are classified as either High Involvement or Low Involvement.
The four quadrants in the FCB Grid divide products and the motivation to buy those products into four categories on the basis of involvement and decision making pattern of consumers regarding those products. It also suggests different marketing and advertising strategies to target each quadrant effectively.
Characteristics of FCB Grid
• Foote, Cone and Belding Model is used to assess the thinking and feeling patterns of consumers which act as the basis of strategizing advertisements
• The two basic elements used for the assessment in Foote, Cone and Belding Model are Thinking and feeling
• The FCB Grid is based on the Split Brain Theory which substantiates and emphasizes on the working of Left Brain and Right Brain in human beings
• The Horizontal Row in the Foote, Cone and Belding Model shows that the behaviour of the consumers tend to move towards thinking emotionally from being rational over a period of time
• The Vertical rows of the FCB grid shows how consumer interests or behaviour shifts from high involvement to low involvement and from low involvement to high involvement over a period of time
• The FCB Grid helps Advertisers to formulate effective advertising strategy for each quadrant.
The first quadrant in the FCB Grid helps the advertising agencies to formulate Informative Strategies
The second quadrant in the FCB Grid helps the them to formulate Affective Strategies
The third quadrant in helps the advertising agencies to formulate Habit formation strategies
The fourth quadrant in the Foote, Cone and Belding Model helps the them formulate satisfaction Strategies
Four Quadrants of FCB Grid
Characteristics of FCB Grid – Quadrant 1
The top left quadrant which falls under the ‘Think’ and ‘High Involvement’ categories is termed as Quadrant One. It symbolizes the deep thinking and high involvement levels shown by consumers before making a purchase decision. The value that a customer attaches with a particular need or product, decides the purchase decisions that fall under this Quadrant. For instance, a high cost product that is bought once in a life time will fall in this quadrant owing to the money invested in the purchase. Some examples of products whose purchase involves high involvement and thinking are investments in Financial and Insurance products, purchasing a house or land and purchase of jewelry.
Demonstration acts as the key driver in Quadrant one. The quality exhibited in Quadrant one is ‘Learn, Feel Do’. The best strategy to advertise products that lie in this quadrant is to provide customers with complete information about the product including practical demonstrations if possible. The most suitable media strategy to impress Customers who belong to this quadrant is providing them Infomercials, Printable and Long copy formats. This is the reason why the first quadrant is also termed as Informative Quadrant.
Characteristics of FCB Grid – Quadrant 2
Quadrant Two includes products that require high involvement and whose purchase decisions are based on feelings of customers. Such purchases are driven by emotions and are for satisfying self and satisfying one’s ego. Such purchase decisions calls for convincing self during the decision making process. Some products that calls for High Involvement as well as feeling that kindles the desire in consumers are beauty products, car for the family and dress material.
Impact acts as the key driver in Quadrant two. The quality exhibited in Quadrant two is ‘Feel, Learn, Do’ pattern. The best strategy to advertise these products is to provide, visuals that will have a high impact on customers. The most suitable media strategy to impress Customers who belong to this quadrant is displaying attractive images in print media and Television channels which impact consumers visually. This is the reason why the second quadrant is also termed as Affective Quadrant.
Characteristics of FCB Grid – Quadrant 3
Quadrant Three in the above grid signifies the regular purchases that happen as a habit or necessity to live life. For instance, monthly groceries purchase fall under this category. This type of purchase is done with low levels of involvement and very little amount of thinking since the customer has formed a habit. Not much thinking is required for purchase of products that are brought again and again. Examples for products that are purchased with low levels of involvement and very little thinking effort are monthly groceries, vessel cleaners etc.
Reminder acts as the key driver in Quadrant Three. The quality exhibited in Quadrant three is ‘Do, Learn, Feel’ pattern. The best strategy to advertise these products is to focus on symbolic means and visual elements that will have high impact on the consumers. The most suitable media strategy to impress Customers who belong to this quadrant is Reminder advertisements and repetition of the same, Jingles and slogans that are highly catchy. This is the reason why the third quadrant is also termed as Habitual Quadrant.
Characteristics of FCB Grid – Quadrant 4
Quadrant Four in the above grid points out to purchases made by consumers with low levels of involvement and feelings. Buying things just for the heck of purchasing or yielding to peer pressure fall under this category of purchase. Such purchases are personal preferences and can be momentary decisions. The products that fall under this category are those that are bought in an impulsive manner or for personal satisfaction. Some such products are eatables from a new food joint unable to resist the aroma, perfumes that spread heart warming fragrance or personal preferences regarding cigarettes, alcohol etc.
Attention acts as the key driver in Quadrant Four. The quality exhibited in Quadrant Four is ‘Do, Feel Learn’ pattern. The best strategy to advertise these products is to focus on customer impulses and preferences. The most suitable media strategy to impress Customers who belong to this quadrant is through Newspapers and Bill Boards. This quadrant is termed as Satisfaction Quadrant.
Key advantages of using Foote, Cone and Belding Model
• Foote, Cone and Belding Model is very rational and logical
• It is highly realistic since it is based on human psychology
• The model is consistent since it does not involve discussions about changing consumer attitude but just exhibits their purchase related behaviour
• Though the model discusses only about the consumer behaviour, it is capable of exerting influence over consumer mentality on purchase related decisions. This is achieved through the insight provided by the grid on the purchase pattern of each consumer. This change in mentality makes consumers think of alternatives during their next purchase.
• A consumer who studies his purchase pattern through the Foote Cone and Belding Model tends to understand the non-rationale manner in which some of his purchase decisions were made. This brings about a change in his behaviour making him think rationally before making a purchase rather than harping on lateral thoughts.
• From a sales point of view, all four quadrants clearly point out the customer behaviour in terms of decision making pertaining to purchases. This helps sales department to focus on the target audience represented by each quadrant for its own product lines.