A job is a collection of tasks, duties and responsibilities necessary to be performed to achieve organizational objectives. Therefore, Job Analysis may be defined as a systematic investigation of tasks, duties, responsibilities necessary to do a job.
Task – Identifiable work for a specific action
Duties – Sequence of tasks to be performed
Responsibilities – Obligation to perform tasks and duties
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “Job Analysis is the process of studying and collecting information relating to the operations and responsibilities of specific job”
Information Provided by Job analysis –
Job Identification – Job Title, Code no.
Characteristics of the job – Location, Physical setting
What a typical worker does?
What materials and machines a worker uses?
How the Job is performed?
Required personal attributes?
Job relations – Relation with superior, junior, co-worker, counsellor
Sources of Information for Job Analysis –
Employees performing the Job
Supervisors and Managers
Methods of Job Analysis –
Panel of Experts
Questionnaire – PAQ – Post Analysis Questionnaire, FJA – Functional Job Analysis, MPDQ – Management Position Description Questionnaire
Process of Job Analysis –
Uses of Job Analysis –
Human Resource Planning
Recruitment, Selection and Placement
Induction and Orientation
Job Design and Redesign
Compensation and Benefits
Performance Appraisal of Employees
Training and Development of Employees
Re-engineering – Combining specialized jobs, Division of responsibility and authority, making work more challenging etc.
Outcomes of Job Analysis
Job Description – It is a written statement of what a job holder expected to do, how it is done, under what conditions and why it is done.
It is a descriptive statement with written record of tasks, duties and responsibilities of a particular job.
According to M.W. Cuming, “A job description is a broad statement of the purpose, scope, duties and responsibilities of a particular job.”
Information provided by Job description –
Job Identification – Job Title, Code no., Department
Job Summary – Primary/Secondary Duties and Tasks to be performed
Job Activities – List of Duties, Frequency of work, Time involvement
Relation to Other Jobs – Horizontal and vertical relationships of work and procedures
Supervision – Type of Supervision – General, Intermediate or Close supervision, Extent of Supervision
Working Conditions – Heat, Cold, Light, Noise, risk to life and other hazards
Social Environment – Size of workgroup, Social Interactions
Purpose of Job Description –
Collect job related data
To understand what is to be done in order to achieve Job objectives
To understand how job is to be performed
To understand who will do the job and under what conditions
To determine the type and extent of supervision the worker will be put under
To set working standards and safety standards
To prepare Job specification
Job Specification – It translates the Job Description into terms of human qualities and qualifications which are required for successful performance of a job.
According to Edwin B. Flippo, “A Job Specification is a statement of minimum acceptable human qualities necessary to perform a job properly.”
It includes a summary of attributes required in a person to be chosen for a particular job. These attributes may be divided into three categories –
Essential Attributes – Skills, Knowledge and Abilities (SKA) a person must possess for successful job performance.
Desirable Attributes – Attributes a person ought to possess.
Contra-Indicators – Attributes that will hinder job performance.
They Relate to –
Physical Characteristics – Physique, Body size, Health, Strength, Height, weight, vision etc.
Demographic Characteristics – Age, Sex, Education, Experience, Location, Language, Religion etc.
Psychological Characteristics – Aptitude, Manual dexterity, Mechanical Aptitude, Judgement, Mental concentration, Analytical ability
Personal Traits – Appearance, Manners, Voice, Emotional Stability, Extroversion, Aggressiveness, Leadership Qualities, Loyalty
Social Characteristics – Extroversion, Adaptability to human relationships, Cooperativeness, Views towards society
Responsibilities – Responsibilities of supervision, achieving targets, meeting deadlines, safety of others, discipline
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