Media simply refers to a vehicle or means of message delivery system to carry an ad message to a targeted audience. Media like TV, Radio, Print, Outdoor and Internet are instruments to convey an advertising message to the public.
The main task of media planners is to select the most appropriate media channels that can effectively communicate the advertising message to a targeted audience. Hence, it is essential for media planners to:
Keep up with latest media trends
Keep up with New technological developments
Determine long and short term effects of different media
Analyse Strengths and Weaknesses of different media
Factors determining Media selection
Nature of product
Nature of message and appeal
Size and Nature of business
Types of Media / Media Classification
Media can be classified into four types:
Print Media (Newspapers, Magazines)
Broadcast Media (TV, Radio)
Outdoor or Out of Home (OOH) Media
Newspaper is a major source of information for a large number of readers.
It may be National or local, daily or weekly newspaper.
Newspapers allow presentation of detailed messages which can be read at reader’s conveyance.
It allows prompt delivery of detailed coverage of news and other information with interesting features for readers.
It is a high involvement media as readers are required to devote some effort in reading the message.
It is available to masses at a very low cost.
Classification of Newspapers
Daily newspapers (Local/Regional)
Special Audience newspapers
Types of Ads in Newspapers
Classified advertisement – Advertisements arranged according to product or service
Display advertisement – Ads that use illustrations, photos, visual elements, may be National or Local.
Special Inserts – Tender notices, Public notices, Shifting of office etc.
Free Standing Insert – Pre-printed ad inserted in newspapers folds that fall out when the reader opens it and attract immediate attention
Geographic and language selectivity
Cheap media with high frequency
High repetitive value and quick response
Poor Presentation and Quality
Short life span
Limited selectivity with regard to lifestyles
Hard to reach illiterate and poor people
A Magazine is a specialized advertising media that serves educational, informational, entertainment and other specialized needs of consumers, businesses, and industries.
A Magazine allows presentation of a detailed ad message along with photos, illustrations, colours etc.
It is a high involvement media as readers pay a premium price for it and magazines are not dumped after reading.
Magazines can be classified into Local/Regional/National or Weekly/Monthly/Quarterly Magazines.
Types of Magazines
Consumer magazines – Magazines bought by general public for information and entertainment. It can be used to reach a specific target audience. It may be a –
General Interest Magazine
Special Interest Magazine
Women Lifestyle Magazine
Business Publications – Business magazines includes publications such as trade journals for businesses, industries or occupations. It may be published weekly monthly or quarterly. Generally, readership includes business managers and executives, businessmen, business students etc. It may be categorized into –
Industrial and Institutional Publications
Highly selective, avoids waste of circulation
Can create image, prestige or reputation
Allows services like `split runs’
Can reach specialized groups
Limited reach and frequency
Long response time
May face competition
(i) Television Advertising
TV is a principal source of information and entertainment for people exposed to mass media.
It is believed to be the most authoritative, influential, exciting medium for reaching very large audience.
It combines visual images, sound, motion and colour to achieve viewer’s empathy.
It allows development of creative and imaginative ad messages in a unique way.
It is considered intrusive in nature as the audience have no control over the nature and pace of advertisements.
Powerful audio-visual media
Wide coverage with effective cost
Attention – intrusive in nature
High selectivity and flexibility
Short lived message
Limited attention by viewers
Zapping – changing channels
Zipping – fast-forwarding commercial to avoid commercials
Intrusive in nature
Radio is a premier mass medium for users and advertisers.
It has a wide spread reach.
It delivers the ad message to a large number of people across the length and breadth of a country.
Commercial broadcasting is undertaken in major cities even rural areas.
Radio time in India is usually sold in slots of 7, 10, 15, 20 or 30 seconds.
It is one of the most personal medium and offers selectivity, cost efficiency and flexibility advantages over other media.
Efficiency of a radio ad depends upon the precision of script, accompanying sounds and level of distortion
According to Rebecca Piirto: “In some ways radio listeners act more like magazine subscribers than television viewers. They tend to listen habitually, at predictable times, to stations with narrowly targeted formats. They are loyal, identifiable and much cheaper to reach than TV audience.”
Helps to reach lower income people, illiterate people
Mental imagery – encourages audience to use imagination
Offers high selectivity
Lack of visual elements