Selection simply means to choose. It is the process of picking individuals who have relevant qualifications to fill jobs in an organization.
According to Dale Yoder, “Selection is the process in which candidates for employment are divided into two classes those who are to be offered employment and those who are not. Selection means a process by which qualified personnel may be chosen from applicants offering their services to the organization for employment.”
The basic purpose is to choose the individual who can most successfully perform the job, from the pool of qualified candidates.
Steps in the Selection Process –
Selection is usually a series of hurdles or steps. Each one must be successfully cleared before the applicant proceeds to the next.
Step 1ReceptionStep 2Screening InterviewStep 3Application BlankStep 4Selection testsStep 5Selection InterviewStep 6Medical ExaminationStep 7Reference CheckStep 8Hiring DecisionStep 9Placement
(1) Reception – A company is known by the people it employs. Therefore a company must create a favourable impression at the initial reception stage. The hiring team must extend help towards the new recruit in a friendly way. All employment opportunities must be presented honestly and clearly to all candidates.
(2) Screening Interview – An initial screening interview is done to cut the costs of hiring by letting only suitable candidates go through further selection process. A junior executive screens out applicants against norms such as age, education, experience, pay expectations, aptitude, location choice etc. If the hiring team finds a suitable candidate a prescribed application form is provided to the applicant to fill and submit.
(3) Application Blank – An application blank is a common method to collect information on various aspects of the applicant`s academics, social background, work background, demographics and references.
Contents of an Application Blank –
(4) Selection Testing – Selection testing is performed to analyse the applicant`s behaviour, performance and aptitude. Tests provide a systematic basis for comparison and selection.
Intelligence tests – It involves test of mental ability, learning ability, memory, perception, vocabulary of the applicant. E.g. Stanford Benet test, Benet Simon test
Aptitude test – It checks the applicant`s potential to learn certain skills and checks their ability to perform tasks quickly and efficiently.
Personality test – It tests motivation, interests, preferences, emotional balance, self-confidence, interpersonal behaviour etc. of the applicant. Eg.PIP(projective, interests and preferences) test
Achievement test – It involves proficiency test which tests what an applicant can do and work sampling which tests the applicant`s ability to do a small portion of the job.
Integrity test – It tests the loyalty and honesty of the applicant.
(5) Selection Interview – It is an oral examination of candidates for employment.
Types of Interview – Non directive Interview, Directive Interview, Situational Interview, Behavioural Interview, Stress Interview,Panel Interview
Process of an Interview – Preparation>Reception>Information Exchange>Termination>Evaluation
(6) Medical Examination – Some jobs require physical qualities like clear vision, acute hearing, stamina etc. A medical examination is conducted to check –
Whether the applicant is medically suitable for the job
Any health problems that may interfere with the efficiency or future attendance of applicant
For Bad health, Drug abuse
That the applicant`s health is in accordance with standards and requirements of the organization
(7) Reference Check – The Applicants previous employer may provide useful and reliable information about the applicant. Therefore the personnel department conducts background checks of the applicant and references provided by them. It may be done through a telephone call or a mail.
(8) Hiring Decision – The line manager makes the final hiring decision. There must be a good understanding between the line manager and the HR department so that the best candidate is selected. The successful candidate is given a job offer followed by an appointment letter.
(9) Placement – After completion of all the formalities the recruit is placed on the job on probationary basis. The probation period may range from two months to two years during which the recruit is observed keenly. After the completion of the probation period the recruit becomes the permanent part of the organization.